Plagiarism Pattern: Shirking Cite

Definition

A shirking cite is word-for-word plagiarism which takes text from another author, does use quotation marks to identify what has been taken and does include the in-text citation, but which omits the locator and reference.

Original Source Material:

Five first principles are elaborated: (a) Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems. (b) Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge. (c) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner. (d) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is applied by the learner. (e) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.

Reference

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43-59.

Student Version:

Merrill (2002) claims that "learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems, ... existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge, ... new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, ... new knowledge is applied by the learner, and ... when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world".


For a Certification Test item that is similar to this pattern, the correct answer is:

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  • Word-for-word plagiarism
      Paraphrasing plagiarism
      Not plagiarism
    Explanation: Correct Version: Not plagiarized

    The student version is word-for-word plagiarism because seven or more words are copied from the source, and quotation marks are used. But the locator is missing from the full in-text citation and the full bibliographic reference is missing.

    Merrill (2002) claims that "learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems, ... existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge, ... new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, ... new knowledge is applied by the learner, and ... when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world" (p. 43).

    Reference

    Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43-59.

     

    See full list of plagiarism patterns.