Cases of Plagiarism and their Consequences
Yes, there are real consequences for getting caught committing plagiarism.
For students in college, getting caught for committing plagiarism can result in a failing grade for a paper or project, or even an entire course. Commission of plagiarism can lead to an academic disciplinary hearing. See Indiana University's Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, & Conduct. See especially the section within "Responsibilities: B. Academic Misconduct. Students are expected to uphold and maintain academic and professional honesty and integrity" (Part B.4.c. Plagiarism, 2023).
For further examples, see Ronald B. Standler's discussion of plagiarism, academic ethics, copyright and trademark infringement laws, and specific legal cases. See Plagiarism in Colleges in the USA (Standler, 2012).