Patterns of Plagiarism

Below are examples of 15 patterns of plagiarism, followed by 3 patterns of non-plagiarism.

These patterns also indicate types of mistakes when questions are answered incorrectly on a Certification Test.

Click on each pattern below to see a prototypical example which explains why it is plagiarism or not. For each pattern, there is also a link to the decision rules applied to determine the correct answer for that type of question on a Certification Test.

Key: wfw=word-for-word plagiarism; para=paraphrasing plagiarism

  1. Clueless Quote: wfw because no quotes, no citation, no reference
  2. Crafty Cover-up: proper paraphrase but wfw also present
  3. Cunning Cover-up: para because no citation, no reference
  4. Deceptive Dupe: wfw because no quotes, no citation, but has reference
  5. Delinked Dupe: wfw because no reference, even though quotes and citation
  6. Devious Dupe: correct quote but wfw also present
  7. Dippy Dupe: wfw because quotes missing, even though full citation and reference
  8. Disguised Dupe: looks like proper paraphrasing, but actually wfw because no quotes, no locator
  9. Double Trouble: both wfw and para, although has reference
  10. Linkless Loser: wfw because citation and reference lacking, although has quotes and locator
  11. Lost Locator: wfw because missing locator, although has quotes, citation, and reference
  12. Placeless Paraphrase: para because no reference, although citation present
  13. Severed Cite: para because reference but no citation
  14. Shirking Cite: wfw because lacks locator and reference, although quotes and citation present
  15. Triple D--Disguised Disconnected Dupe: wfw--looks like proper paraphrasing, but no quotes, no reference, no locator

Patterns of Non-Plagiarism

  1. Correct Quote: takes another's words verbatim and acknowledges with quotation marks, full in-text citation with locator, and reference
  2. Proper Paraphrase: summarizes another's words and acknowledges with in-text citation and reference
  3. Parroted Paraphrase: appears to be paraphrasing, and technically may not be plagiarism, but ... ???

For Further Learning

Try the instruction and practice tests with feedback. For additional help, see decision support, hints, how to take tests, and mistakes often made.